The Spanish Conquest of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec Empire

TLDR Hernán Cortés and his troops, along with their allies, launch a naval attack on Tenochtitlan, engage in a grueling campaign, and eventually gain control of the city. The Spanish conquerors face resistance from the Aztecs, but ultimately succeed in capturing the last emperor and subjecting the refugees to slavery and suffering.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 Hernán Cortés and his men launch their ships into Lake Texcoco in an attempt to capture the city of Tenochtitlan and the Aztec empire.
04:16 Hernán Cortés and his troops, along with the Tlaxcalans, launch a naval attack on Tenochtitlan, using ships to gain control of the waters and engage in a grueling campaign along the causeways against the Aztecs.
07:47 The Spanish and their allies gain control of the major causeways and break into the city of Tenochtitlan, but are driven back by the Aztecs, leading Cortés to adopt a strategy of demolishing buildings and leaving the defenders with nowhere to hide.
11:14 The Spanish are surrounded by Mechica warriors but Cortés is not killed because the warriors want to capture and sacrifice him, resulting in the death of a couple dozen Spanish men and the capture of around 50 others, who are then sacrificed to the gods.
14:48 The Aztecs try to terrify the enemy by showing the hands, feet, and heads of Spanish captives, but people are not convinced and the Spanish continue to raid the city; the Aztecs are impressed by the Spanish armor and weapons but are frustrated that they can't make them work; the Aztecs are ravaged by disease and have run out of food, leading to starvation; the Spanish have a belief in the fountain of youth in La Florida.
18:18 Juan Ponce de León's expedition to find the fountain of youth in La Florida goes wrong, and the survivors join Cortez with more supplies, giving him the upper hand; Cortez offers terms to spare Tenochtitlan, but they are turned down and the end game approaches.
21:59 Pedro de Alborado's slow progress in attacking the city is attributed to his nightly visits to his mistress, and as Cortez moves his headquarters inside the city, the surviving Aztecs are cornered in the north; during the latest attack, an Aztec warrior dressed as an owl appears, embodying the tragedy and beauty of the Aztec civilization.
25:53 The Spanish launch their final attack on the Aztecs, resulting in a chaotic scene of civilians desperately trying to escape across the lake, Cuauhtémoc, the last emperor of the Mexica, is captured and brought before Cortés, where he expresses his despair and offers his life, but Cortés assures him that he will rule his city again.
29:37 The Spanish soldiers separate the refugees, taking the young women as slaves and branding the young men as rebels, while conducting aggressive body searches for gold, leaving the refugees with nothing but despair and suffering.
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