The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: A Dark Chapter in British Colonial History

TLDR The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, where British soldiers opened fire on a crowd in Amritsar, India, resulted in the deaths of hundreds of innocent people. The British government's lack of acknowledgement and apology for the massacre continues to be a contentious issue for many Indians.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 The question is asked about who gave the orders to close the gates of Delhi and massacre the male population, and it is explained that General Archdale Wilson was the British commander in charge of the siege of Delhi and his orders were that no prisoners were to be taken and that women and children would be protected, but males were fair game.
04:37 The behavior of British soldiers during the uprising of 1857 in India included rape and plunder, and there was limited reporting of these atrocities back in Britain.
08:55 The book "Ghosts of Empire" covers chilling and worse atrocities committed by the British in Africa, and highlights the economic exploitation that was even worse than what happened in India.
13:00 The Lieutenant Governor of Punjab removes two Gandhian leaders from Amritsar and prevents Gandhi from arriving, causing an information vacuum and rumors of insurrection, leading to chaos and riots.
17:23 The riots in Amritsar lead to violent attacks on Europeans, including an elderly missionary who is beaten by a crowd of Indian boys, and the assault on Queen Victoria's statue triggers a strong reaction from the British authorities, who send out reinforcements and declare a curfew during the Punjabi festival of Vaisakhi.
21:52 On the morning of April 13th, a drum proclamation is issued in Amritsar, banning public meetings and gatherings, but the authorities' expectation that it will be heard and obeyed by everyone in the city is unrealistic; meanwhile, a political meeting is organized in the Jallianwala Bagh, a public space surrounded by tenement buildings and walls, which angers Dyer and leads him to mobilize a special task force.
26:14 Dyer opens fire on the crowd in the Jallianwala Bagh, believing it to be a rebel camp, resulting in the firing of 1,650 rounds by 50 men over a period of 10 minutes, with no warning or dispersal order given, and with the deliberate intention to kill.
30:41 The survivors of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre are left without medical aid and face punitive measures by the police, including being forced to crawl at the point of bayonets and having their wells soiled, while the news of the massacre takes weeks and months to spread throughout India, leading to figures like Tagore and Nehru taking a public stand against the British.
35:18 The aftermath of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is characterized by the British government's attempt to sweep it under the carpet, the support for Daya's actions, and the lack of an official apology from the British state.
39:34 The British government's potential apology for the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre would likely be motivated by trade relations with India rather than genuine remorse, and the lack of acknowledgement and apology for the massacre continues to be a live issue for many Indians.
Categories: History

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: A Dark Chapter in British Colonial History

5. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
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