The Hundred Years' War: A Tale of Victory, Defeat, and Instability

TLDR The Hundred Years' War between England and France was marked by victories and defeats, including the capture of King Jean II of France by the Black Prince and the collapse of English positions in France under the brilliant strategist Bertrand Duguescler. However, the war left both countries scarred and unstable, with young and inexperienced kings and ambitious uncles vying for power.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 The Black Prince captures King Jean II of France and leads him through the crowds in London, signaling England's victory in the Hundred Years' War.
04:47 Edward III agrees to rule directly over a quarter of France, while France is facing multiple crises, including Charles the bad's escape and a peasant uprising called the Jacquerie.
09:02 The peasant rebellion known as the Jacquerie threatens to spread throughout France, causing fear among the nobility, but is ultimately wiped out by Charles the Bad, who then makes a mistake by trying to seize control of Paris and loses the support of the nobility, leading to anarchy in the city; meanwhile, the disintegration of the French government allows bands of men, known as the Great Company, to pillage and plunder the countryside, and the obligation to pay John's ransom further exacerbates the financial crisis in France, leaving the country in a terrible condition and making Charles the Bad the real enemy for Edward III.
13:22 Edward III fails to take Reims and capture Paris, which demonstrates his inability to conquer the kingdom of France.
17:27 Edward III is advised by the Duke of Lancaster to negotiate with the French and accept the offers that have been made, as the English are at a disadvantage in terms of resources and the French are unlikely to risk another decisive battle, leading to negotiations in May 1360 that result in Edward giving up his claim to the French throne in exchange for an expanded Duchy of Aquitaine, marking the end of the war but leaving Edward somewhat disappointed and aware of the precariousness of their position.
21:42 After the Treaty of Bretigny, England is in a strong position in the Hundred Years' War, with the Black Prince becoming Duke of Aquitaine and holding extravagant court, but the foundations of English rule remain precarious and social instability increases in the new territories, leading to the possibility of a peasant revolt and a breakdown of social order in England.
26:10 The Black Prince's rule is marked by extravagance and heavy taxation, leading to discontent among his subjects and the possibility of appealing to the French king for help, while the Black Prince's military successes in Spain result in personal debt and illness, ultimately leading to his death and the ascension of Charles as king of France, who cunningly works to regain the lands lost to England.
30:39 Bertrand Duguescler, a brilliant strategist, leads the French in a war of attrition against the English, resulting in the collapse of English positions in France and the French king's reclaiming of the throne.
34:48 The Black Prince, suffering from malaria and dysentery, dies a humiliating death, while Edward III becomes senile and dies swaddled in cloth of gold, losing all his lands in France.
39:08 The survivors of the Hundred Years' War include John of Gaunt, who leads the last great chevauchée but becomes unpopular, while Charles V is praised for his achievements in France; both England and France are left scarred and unstable with young and inexperienced kings, Richard II and Charles VI, and ambitious uncles, John of Gaunt and Philip the Bold, respectively.
43:43 The Hundred Years' War is discussed as having different stages and characters, with a 20-30 year hiatus before the events of Richard II and Henry IV, part one and two, and the war's impact on England is highlighted as being significant and long-lasting.
Categories: History

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