# The History and Adoption of Negative Numbers in Mathematics

TLDR Negative numbers were initially seen as absurd and controversial, but they eventually became commonplace in mathematics. The Chinese and Indian mathematicians played a significant role in developing the rules and symbols for working with negative numbers, while European mathematicians started to accept and use negative numbers in the 15th century.

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Negative numbers were initially difficult for people to grasp because they were not concepts that were encountered in everyday life, but they eventually became commonplace in mathematics.

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Negative numbers were initially seen as absurd and controversial because people couldn't understand how you could have a negative amount of something, but the Chinese mathematician Lu Wei developed a system of positive and negative symbols for accounting purposes, which helped to normalize the use of negative numbers in China.

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The Chinese embraced negative numbers because they were used to measure debts, while the Indian mathematician Brahma Gupta developed the rules for working with negative numbers and also created a general solution to the quadratic equation.

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The rules for doing basic arithmetic with negative numbers and zeros were created by an Indian mathematician and are still used today, while the great Muslim mathematician Al-Qurizmi avoided using negative numbers in his work.

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Negative numbers were used by Islamic mathematicians like Abul Wafa and Al-Samawal, but it wasn't until the 15th century that European mathematicians started to accept and use negative numbers in their work.

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Negative numbers were used by some mathematicians in the 17th century, but it wasn't until the 19th century that they were universally adopted.

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