The Failed Invasions of Japan by the Mongol Empire

TLDR The Mongol Empire, under Kublai Khan, attempted to invade Japan twice in the late 13th century but was unsuccessful both times. Despite initial success, the Mongols were ultimately defeated by a typhoon, leading to their downfall and inspiring Japanese nationalism.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 The Mongol Empire, at its peak in the late 13th century, attempted to invade Japan twice with the largest amphibious fleet in history, but was unsuccessful both times.
02:33 In the late 13th century, Kublai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire, sent envoys to Japan demanding their submission as a vassal state, but the Japanese rejected these demands and began preparing for a potential invasion.
04:42 In 1274, the Mongols, led by Kublai Khan, amassed an army and fleet of ships to invade Japan, despite their lack of knowledge and experience in naval warfare, and initially found success by taking the islands of Tsushima and Iki before landing their forces in Fukuoka.
06:48 The Mongols, with their superior weapons, organization, and experience, initially had success in their invasion of Japan, but were ultimately defeated by a typhoon, leading to a rare failure for them, and prompting Kublai Khan to plan a second invasion while he conquered the Song Dynasty in China.
08:53 In the second invasion of Japan, Kublai Khan sent a larger force of 140,000 soldiers on 4,000 ships, but the Japanese were able to hold them off for 50 days in a stalemate by using defensive walls, setting Mongol ships on fire, and pushing them back.
10:59 The second invasion of Japan was ended by a typhoon that destroyed most of the Mongol ships and killed an estimated 100,000 soldiers, preventing the Mongols from ever conquering Japan and devastating their naval capabilities.
13:07 The defeat of the Mongols in the invasions of Japan led to the downfall of the Kamakura Shogunate, increased nationalism in Japan, and the inspiration for the term "kamikaze" used by Japanese pilots in World War II.
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