The Transition from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire

TLDR The Roman Republic transformed into the Roman Empire with the rise of Julius Caesar and his adopted son Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor. Octavian, later known as Augustus, gradually accumulated powers and established the system of the Principate, where the Roman Empire was governed by a single individual.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire when Julius Caesar became the last leader of the Republic and was succeeded by his adopted son Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor.
02:14 The Roman Republic became an empire with the existence of an emperor, although there was never an official legal position called an emperor in Rome.
04:08 Octavian, who began calling himself Caesar after Julius Caesar's death, strategically maintained power in Rome by giving up control of provinces and armies while still maintaining personal loyalty and legal authority, ultimately accepting a 10-year extension on his control over provinces granted by the Senate.
06:10 After being given the title of Augustus and Princeps Senatus, Augustus stepped down from being consul and instead was granted the powers of the Tribune of the Plebs for life, making his person sacrosanct and giving him wide-ranging powers.
08:02 Augustus accumulated powers gradually over a period of decades, including consular authority and imperium within the city of Rome, the position of Pontifex Maximus, and the title of Patriae, establishing the power of the emperor.
09:56 After Augustus' death, his stepson Tiberius was chosen as his successor and given many of his powers and titles, including the title of Princeps, Augustus, and the powers of tribunate and proconsul, solidifying the system of the Principate where the Roman Empire was run by a single individual.
11:48 The Principate lasted from 27 BC until the rise of the Emperor Domitian in 284, who changed the nature of the role of Emperor and began a period known as the Dominate, where the Empire became much closer to a monarchy and the Emperor had absolute power.
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