The Significance and Traditions of Ramadan

TLDR Ramadan is a month of fasting, prayer, and religious observances for Muslims around the world. It is a time of introspection and giving to charity, and is celebrated with various traditions such as lighting up lights, night markets, and traditional greetings.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 Ramadan is a month of fasting, prayer, and introspection that is the most important month on the Islamic calendar, and it is believed to be the month when all Holy Scripture was revealed.
02:17 During Ramadan, Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset, abstaining from food, drink, smoking, and sexual relations, and engage in additional religious observances such as giving to charity, studying the Quran, and praying.
03:51 During Ramadan, there are various traditions such as lighting up lights at night, having night markets with food stalls, lighting fireworks in Indonesia, and using traditional greetings like "Ramadan Mubarak" and "Ramadan Karim"; not everyone is required to fast, and there are exceptions for those who are sick, pregnant, breastfeeding, menstruating, traveling, or children who have not reached puberty; non-Muslims in Muslim countries can either buy food beforehand or observe the fast with everyone else; there are small differences in how Sunni and Shia Muslims celebrate Ramadan, including determining sunrise and sunset and celebrating Laylat Al-Qadr on different nights; determining when Ramadan starts is not clear-cut due to the Islamic calendar being different from the Gregorian calendar.
05:24 The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, which means that Ramadan starts 11 or 12 days earlier each year and will eventually cycle through an entire solar year; the start of Ramadan can vary depending on the physical sighting of the crescent moon or the pronouncement by Saudi Arabia.
07:06 The issue of sunrise and sunset is critical to the observance of Ramadan, but it can be a problem for Muslims living at extreme latitudes where the sun never sets during the summer.
08:41 Muslims living at extreme latitudes where the sun never sets during the summer have several options to observe Ramadan, including fasting at a time with normal sunrise and sunset, using the times of a nearby Muslim community, or using the times of Mecca; Muslim astronauts can observe the times of wherever they left Earth or observe Ramadan when they return, and Eid is the festive celebration that marks the end of Ramadan.
10:14 Ramadan is celebrated by 1.9 billion Muslims around the world, making it one of the biggest annually observed events on the planet.
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