The Night of Broken Glass: The Escalation of Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany

TLDR The persecution of Jews in Germany and Austria intensified from 1936 to 1938, culminating in the state-sponsored pogrom known as the Night of Broken Glass. The Nazis implemented various measures to drive Jews out of Europe, including demolishing synagogues, seizing Jewish businesses, and launching physical attacks on Jewish families.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 The persecution of Jews in Germany and Austria escalated from 1936 to 1938, leading to the state-sponsored pogrom known as the Night of Broken Glass.
05:01 The Nazis' anti-Semitism intensified in 1937 as they prepared for war and sought to eliminate the perceived "enemy within" before taking on external enemies, with the SS playing a key role in driving Jews out of Europe.
09:22 In 1938, the Nazis demolished synagogues and Jewish cemeteries, including the great synagogue in Nuremberg, which had symbolic significance, and launched a final drive to push Jews out of German economic life, with big names in the German economy benefiting from taking over Jewish businesses.
13:36 By 1938, various branches of civil society in Germany, including judges, lawyers, policemen, and shopkeepers, have become complicit in the Nazi regime's anti-Semitic policies, with academics tailoring their research to align with Nazi demands, such as measuring Jewish skulls or writing histories that portray Jews as betrayers of Germany.
17:45 In response to the anti-Semitic pressure in Poland, the Gestapo decides to arrest and deport Polish Jews living in Germany, leading to Herschel Grinschmann, a young Jewish boy, taking matters into his own hands by shooting a German embassy official in Paris.
21:56 The shooting of Ernst von Rat in Paris by a Polish Jew outraged by the Nazi treatment of his parents leads Hitler to seize the opportunity to launch physical attacks on Jewish families and round up Jewish men in Germany, purging the country of its Jewish population.
26:59 Orders are sent out for a focused and seemingly spontaneous nationwide pogrom against Jewish families and synagogues in Germany, with instructions to dress in civilian clothes, not intervene or protect Jewish families, and to arrest as many people as possible, targeting propertied Jews in particular.
31:07 The Nazis officially back the pogrom, claiming it is a reasonable expression of German anger, but Hitler's order to end the action is ignored and the violence continues, with children and young people actively participating in the attacks.
35:00 The Nazis implement economic measures against Jews, including fines and exclusion from German economic life, leading to further segregation and restrictions on their daily lives.
39:16 As war becomes more imminent, the Nazi sense of urgency to eliminate German Jews increases, with Hitler blaming them for the potential outbreak of war and vowing to annihilate the Jewish race in Europe.
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