The History of Portugal: Waves of Invaders, Alliances, and Exploration

TLDR Portugal's history is marked by waves of invaders, including the Romans and the Moors, but the Christians in the north were able to preserve their independence, leading to the establishment of Portugal as a country. The alliance between Portugal and England, which has lasted for nearly seven centuries, played a significant role in Portugal's emergence as a powerful nation through successful trade relationships, exploration, and expansion.

Timestamped Summary

00:00 This episode of "The Rest is History" is sponsored by Wine52 and focuses on the history of Portugal, which is entangled with that of England and is the oldest surviving alliance in the world.
05:24 Portugal's history is marked by waves of invaders coming from the Mediterranean, but its position on the Atlantic fringe has given it a paradoxical quality of being both a Mediterranean and Atlantic state.
10:07 Portugal's history includes waves of invaders, such as the Romans and the Moors, but the Christians in the north were able to hold out and preserve a shaky independence, leading to the eventual establishment of Portugal as a country.
14:21 Portugal was originally a vassal of the Kingdom of Leon and the idea of being Portuguese and Spanish didn't exist, with the Iberian Peninsula being a patchwork of shifting alliances and conflicts between Christian noblemen and the Moors.
18:27 The English behaved well during the Siege of Lisbon compared to the Germans and the Flemish, impressing the Muslims and leading to the appointment of the first Bishop of Lisbon, Gilbert of Hastings.
22:46 The alliance between England and Portugal has lasted for nearly seven centuries, reflecting well on both sides and sealed by the Treaty of Windsor in 1386 when John of Gaunt's daughter, Philippa of Lancaster, married John I of Portugal.
27:08 Portugal establishes an alliance with England in 1386, leading to a successful trade relationship and the emergence of Portuguese power with the capture of Suta and Tangier.
31:58 Portugal's Henry the Navigator has a vision of gaining wealth and power through exploration and trade, as well as a desire to destroy Islam and establish an alliance with the mythical figure of Presta John.
36:20 Portugal's exploration and expansion is driven by both aggressive motives, such as capturing and enslaving enemies of Christ, as well as technological innovation, such as the development of the caravel ship with triangular sails and flat bottoms for river navigation.
40:38 Portugal begins engaging in the slave trade in the mid-15th century, bringing tens of thousands of African slaves to Lisbon and establishing plantations in Madeira and the Azores, as they continue their exploration and expansion along the coast of West Africa.
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